By Elizabeth N. Steinhagen, News Editor
General information on Cataloging News
The following reports were contributed from the AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION Meeting, San Francisco, CA, July 1997.
Meeting of the ALCTS Technical Services Directors of Large Research Libraries Discussion Group, ("Big Heads") June 27, 1997
John Lubans announced that as the Chair, Carton Rogers, had been unable to come, he would be chairing the meeting. Catherine Tierney (Stanford) was chosen as new Chair-Elect.
At the round robin on issues of importance to local institutions Princeton's Don Thornberry announced that Princeton is still working on the implementation of its first ILS--Horizon and still also working on the merge of its Geac circulation records and its Notis cataloging system. They hope to complete the merge by the start of the 1997/98 academic year and this implementation is providing an opportunity to explore working in teams. Also, they are concurrently preparing to recon 1.5 million titles and are preparing an RFP for it.
During the summer of 1997 they will have upgraded the library computer system, with PCs on almost every desk. Even shelvers will have access to PCs in their area. The Library has instituted 2 new technical services positions: an Integrated Database administrator and a Technical Services Microcomputer support person. Both positions were filled by existing staff.
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, according to Larry Alford, won one of the ten Library of Congress/Ameritech Digital Library awards for its "Documenting the American South" project. The funds will be used to digitize one hundred first
person narratives. Eventually the database documenting the 1840-1920 period will include over 500 SGML-encoded texts, of which 50 have been done. UNC will provide bibliographic records in OCLC for each text. The database URL is: http://sunsite.unc.
In addition, he mentioned that Marcia Tuttle, Head of the Serials Department, will retire at the end of June and will not be replaced. Instead, serials functions will be divided between the Acquisitions Department and Preservation Services. UNC had a 68% increase in cataloging productivity this year on top of a 20% increase in the previous year. This gain was in part due to changes in processing, after a review of workflow and quality control and, in part, to the expenditure of about $100,000 for new technology in both Acquisitions and Cataloging. Two technical support positions were created in Technical Services to provide systems training, machine trouble-shooting, etc. for staff. They are seeking funding for North Carolina Live, a project similar to Georgia's Galileo, to make electronic databases accessible statewide.
The University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, stated Sharon Clark, is installing a client-server DRA-based system called TAOS and has almost completed a major barcoding project of its collections in preparation for migration. Target date for going live is summer of 1998. They are almost done with the installation of new PCs and ergonomic furniture in technical services; public services Pcs will also be added. Technical services staff has been involved in re-organization, having flow-charted all operations and loaded the flowcharts on the web. They have also had a retreat and a forum to get input from staff, with library-wide forums to follow. A consultant has also been hired to advise both technical and public services. Illinois also hopes to remodel the main library building; if that is done, technical services will be first to move out of its space.
Roxanne Sellberg, of Northwestern University, mentioned that they have moved the public card catalog into storage--not having added to it in nearly 20 years! The area vacated will be used to expand the electronic "General Information Center." In 1998, the library plans to transfer the major part of their serials orders
to a new serials vendor, implement Windows NT and re-allocate space in the main building. This will require the transfer of 50,000 volumes into compact storage; technical services staff work space will also be changing. Also, migration to a new system will be the culmination of a year's work.
UCLA, said Brian Schottlaender, is also in the middle of DRA Taos implementation and is setting up teams to manage the process. Three of the teams: Implementation Steering Team (IST), Data Migration Team (DMT), and Policy, Configuration, and Workflow (PCW) are already at work; Testing and Training are waiting in the wings. PCW is conducting systematic and detailed review of workflow in several areas, such as acquisitions, cataloging, ILL, circulation. It is developing "generic" or ideal workflows for subsequent review and evaluation by Unit Implementation Teams.
DMT has completed mapping migration tables for bibliographic and authority records. Data migration to the new system is scheduled to begin in Fall 1997, calling the new system ORION 2.
Under Carol Hixson's leadership the University Research Library Cataloging Department is working on the development of quantitative and qualitative performance norms for both professional and paraprofessional catalogers; this effort will be an ongoing dialogue which is just beginning. So far, quantitative and qualitative norms have been established for rapid catalogers.
UCLA is moving to a Windows NT environment, with technical services migrating to a workstation environment with leased machines, as a way of dealing with their expected 18 month to 3 year life span. Technical automation consultants have been appointed in each unit to manage the workstations. Productivity is up over that of the previous year. Technical services is also involved in moving 150,000 volumes annually over the next 3 years from the Research Library to a remote storage facility on campus (plus 50,000 from other libraries on campus). UCLA is also
conducting a collection allocation formula exercise, taking into account variables, weighting, and percentages of base.
The library is also involved in administering a system-wide project to encode archival finding aids according to the EAD standards. As a "proof of concept" they are working on a local
collection consisting of 700 Asian-American relocation-related documents. The Department of Special Collections has received an NEH grant in the amount of $220,000 to upgrade and convert MARC-AMC cataloging for over 1,600 archival collections. These cataloging records will ultimately be linked to EAD-encoded finding aids which, in turn, will be linked to digitized images of selected contents of the archival collections.
The libraries of the University of California system plan to create a digital "co-library." Among other things the co-library would be responsible for leasing and managing system-wide full-text resources.
New York University's Arno Kastner is leading a 5 year project to inventory its entire collection and has received funding for 8 new positions to do the work. Part of the project will involve identifying titles that were missed during recon.
At the end of 1994 NYU had suspended authority control work on copy cataloging in the expectation of sending its database to WAN for authority control cleanup. That project is now under way and NYU is faced with the prospect of re-introducing authority control in copy cataloging. It is expected to be a post-
cataloging routine based on new-headings lists.
In addition, NYU has signed an agreement to affiliate with the New York Historical Society and has received funding from the Mellon Foundation to hire and manage a staff to catalog 250,000 volumes (and to recon 350,000) and to process archival collections of manuscripts, photographs, maps and prints.
NYU has redefined a position to provide technology support in technical services for training in software applications. Since April 1997 the library has been engaged in a fast-track planning process for redesigning the delivery of library services to the university community. They are working with a consultant and an architect on a proposal to be presented to the university in the fall of 1997.
The New York Public Library, according to Mike Bruer, has had an Innovative Interfaces system for 10 years and is staying with it. Some issues that are problematic:
- The way NYPL obtains and process bibliographic records. What is the new role for utilities? What part of the process will be assumed by system vendors and/or by book jobbers? How will quality control be managed?
- Traditional preservation is a concern in the rush to imaging. There are signs of a loss of concern for traditional preservation matters and excessive embracing of imaging, to the extent that some high level administrators now see imaging as a source of funding and think of preservation as a pay-as-you-go operation.
- Systems, or the reality of networked devices that offer a galaxy of resources to users and which really comes down to most of the people using those devices for surfing the Internet, getting in the way of users who want to search the catalog. So NYPL has had to "dumb down" many high level machines for only catalog access.
The University of Chicago, said Judy Nadler, has received funds for a major recon project involving 1.3 million records (the major exclusion will be East Asian materials); the recon vendor will be announced within weeks.
They are co-developing an integrated library system with Ameritech Horizon. They have brought up the online catalog, circulation and reserves and hope to have finished with cataloging and serials in 1997. Acquisitions remains to be done. Library technical services staff have been working on teams with Horizon staff on documentation and library-wide Horizon training.
Chicago has implemented a major approval plan for all English language US and UK publications, including vendor-
supplied bibliographic records. They are pursuing final processing with the vendor. The plan will cover about 25,000 volumes a year, with Acquisitions doing the final work after the materials are received. Chicago is looking into setting up similar projects with vendors of European materials.
Training requirements are growing and personnel requirements in the new environment are being studied. Support staff need more language expertise, computer sophistication, and supervisory skills. There is ongoing rationalization as to where system expertise should reside, whether in the systems office, the units, or in split positions. Chicago is looking into testing out several split positions. Reconfiguration of space and where technical services should best reside is being studied.
Within CIC (Committee for Inter-Institutional Cooperation), Chicago is coordinating the ARTFL cataloging project and is developing models for shared cataloging in areas of cooperative collection development. Chicago too was one of the ten winners of the 1996/1997 Library of Congress/Ameritech National Digital Library competition. The library will use the award to digitize a collection of 5,800 glass lantern slides, glass negatives, and
photographic prints, and make them available on the World Wide Web. The collection will be contributed in digital form to the Library of Congress American Memory Project.
Jennifer Younger, of Ohio State University, told the audience that OSU continues to reap positive benefit from its participation in OhioLink, the statewide consortium of academic libraries. Direct patron request of books from any library has dramatically increased over the last year, requiring expanded mailroom operations at the Libraries. OhioLink is purchasing electronic journals, including those issued by Academic Press and Elsevier, for access statewide. URLs (hot links) in the full bibliographic records will take users from the bibliographic records to the full text.
The Libraries are creating a website for library information and access to internet and Web-accessible resources. Although some redundancy of access may well exist into the future, some attention is being given to whether the resources are included in the local online catalog (OSCAR), the website, or both.
The OSU Main Library is undergoing a $500,000 heating and air-conditioning upgrade, including some asbestos removal. William Studer, Director of University Libraries, will retire in June 1999. and the University will appoint a blue-ribbon committee to study library needs before starting the search for a new director. The Libraries have received additional support from the University for materials, based on an acquisitions index that takes into account inflationary factors. However, the University administration has initiated discussion on whether such automatic increases should continue to be funded in the future. By contrast, the personnel budget has suffered, losing over 30 positions in the last few years. They are stretched very thinly and are actively seeking ways to provide the best possible services. The Undergraduate Library and 3 department libraries are being merged to form a social sciences library. Some of the collections are being transferred to an on-campus depository to make the move possible.
Significant streamlining of workflows is going on in technical services, with some monographs and serials cataloged on receipt, reducing duplication of work between acquisitions and cataloging and the number of steps involved. Throughput time for processing has been reduced by half. Cataloging backlogs for English and Western European language books are gone. Technical services is working on delivery of "shelf-ready journals" to departmental libraries. Check-in in Acquisitions includes attaching specific labels to new journal issues and security stripping, so most of them are shelf-ready immediately.
OSU's automated system produces a volume count at the end of the year, although it cannot derive volumes added and withdrawn, statistics that ARL requires. The question of what other libraries are doing arose and e-mail questions will be sent to the Big Heads list.
Bob Wolven of Columbia University said his library has started participating in BIBCO; about 60% of original cataloging for monographs is now done at Core level. They joined CONSER in May 1997 and have contracted with both OCLC and Diogenes--now known as Marcadia--for batch-matching of catalog records for materials from the open-access backlog.
Technical services is moving into new quarters and the card shelflist is in fixed cabinets that cannot be moved. RetroLink Associates will scan approximately 1.1 million cards from the libraries' union shelflist file and make them available as an
image database. The scanning should be completed in November 1997. Cards are scanned at 300 dpi, bitonal, 1 bit per pixel. Images are delivered in TIFF format on CD-ROM. For online access, the TIFF images are converted to GIF, scaled to one-third size. Every 10th card will be indexed by call number and staff will be able to retrieve the nearest index point to a desired call number, and browse images forward or backward until a specific card image is found. Index files are delivered as bibliographic records in MARC format, containing the call number in both 090 and 245 fields, and the associated TIFF file name in 856, subfield f. Technical services staff will use the scanned shelflist for maintenance activities, marking files as "inactive" as items are withdrawn, transferred, or converted. Portions of the image database will also be output to vendors for future recon projects. Columbia is loading metadata for digital resources into a relational database, which can be used for Web searching and display and to output MARC records. Two of the projects contributing metadata are APIS (the Advanced Papyrological Information System) and the Digital Scriptorium (which is scanning medieval manuscripts).
Columbia has been getting scanned Table-of-Contents (TOC) enrichment from Blackwell and would like to know if others have good data on how TOC data is affecting users' search results.
The have also been acquiring and cataloging large packages of electronic journals such as JSTOR, IDEAL, and Project MUSE. Technical services has noted that some publishers are reporting that paper directories and indexes have been replaced by Web access when investigation reveals that this is not true. Either the Web site lists the title as "coming soon" (sometimes for months) or the Web version provides substantially less content than the paper.
Stanford's Catherine Tierney reported that Yankee Book Peddler supplies about 12,000 volumes, excluding about 350 standing order titles, in shelf-ready form. Their catalogers have almost finished NACO training, BIBCO training will be completed by the end of 1997. In a pilot "Classification on Receipt" project, everything that comes in the door, whether or not copy is available, is given a classification number and shelved. Three FTE are doing this classification; they have almost met their target to average six titles per hour. The records will be recycled to the utilities to get full cataloging records. The class numbers will be changed only in the case of serious error or selector request.
Preservation is devoting more staff time to preserving special collections. Technical services' biggest problem is to get some true and fair job designs in place as job duties are changing. They are looking for a Catalog Development Coordinator to lead a "developing the catalog of the future" project, including delivery of new modes of intellectual access inspired by new technologies and complex knowledge environments.
The University of Wisconsin Libraries' Richard Reeb said the UW are investigating ways to work more effectively with their major vendors to achieve grater efficiencies in processing new receipts. For the past six months they have been receiving OCLC PromptCat records for titles received from Yankee Book Peddler and more recently they have been experimenting with placing firm orders on Yankee's online system and recording this ordering activity in their local database. 1997/98 plans will include consideration of expanding the PromptCat service to cover titles they firm order from their major U.S. vendors, and comparison of shelf-ready services with local costs.
Conversion continues to move along; in spring of 1997 they reached the 50% mark in terms of shelflist drawers in the LC classification. However, since the shelflist contains cards cataloged on OCLC since 1976, much more than half the collection is already represented in the online catalog. Wisconsin hopes to use its North American title count figures to refine its estimate on how many titles remain to be converted. It is also trying to determine how many electronic resources are available on campus and to extract this statistic from its local database or catalog by the end of the 1997/98 fiscal year.
Duke University's John Lubans said that it had been proposed to reclass the library collection from Dewey to LC but the price tag of five million dollars has added a sobering note to the discussion. He wants to hear from libraries that have done programs to show non-librarians what technical services does, e.g., what is done to process a generic book from start to finish, such as "A Day in Technical Services."
Duke has done a click stream analysis of Internet access to see what kinds of websites users are accessing through public library terminals. Duke's own websites are the most accessed and sports seem to be more popular than pornography. As of June 1997 Duke had 800 hot links in its online catalog via the 856 field.
They are experimenting with these and trying to ascertain what future roles there might be for technical services in facilitating access to a variety of web sites, more than electronic versions of books. Since 1992/93, Duke's approval plans have increased, while firm orders have declined, along with a downward trend in monographic orders placed.
The number of orders submitted for searching has fluctuated, and Lubans wondered about the causes for the general reduction since 1994/95; is it the ubiquitous availability of data bases for searching, permitting more pre-screening by bibliographers than in previous years? Brian Schottlaender said this finding was opposite to what was happening at UCLA and he asked about Duke's materials budget. Lubans said Duke has a "modest" annual increase of 6-8% in its materials budget; Schottlaender expressed astonishment at characterizing that percentage as "modest."
From Yale University Don Waters reported that Joan Swanekamp is now Yale's Chief catalog librarian and Vicki Seymour has joined Yale as the new Chief Acquisitions Librarian.
Yale is upgrading its mainframe to year-2000 compliant technology and is shifting to Windows NT, but expects to remain on Notis for three more years. Under the heading of preservation he reported that the installation of air conditioning in Sterling Memorial Library (SML) should be completed by the end of the year. Part of the air conditioning system has been turned on. When the SML renovation is complete, Yale will move from having 15% of its collection under good environmental control to 50%; with the creation of a new off-campus shelving facility and renovations in other Yale libraries, between 70-80% of the collection should be under effective environmental control by the year 2000. Technical Services recently reallocated funds to put the Preservation Department's collection care unit (for minor collections repairs) on a firm financial footing. With the environmental controls being put in place, the collection care unit, its reformatting and pre-preparations division and its conservation unit, Yale has developed a comprehensive approach to the preservation of its paper collections.
Yale University is installing a new Oracle-based financial system. A team in technical services is working on how to make the Library's acquisitions and other systems interact effectively with the new University system. Yale became a NACO member last year and dramatically changed its approach to authority control. The Library has sent the entire file out for cleanup and is now working with OCLC to use the OCLC Authority Control program for ongoing authority processing of cataloging and also of retrospective conversion records. The conversion project is underway. Yale just completed a major training program to upgrade B-level card files to C-level staff competent to perform recon work. Specifications have been drawn up for conversion of records for the art collections and a contract is in final stages of negotiation. The Divinity collection will soon be done. The CJK collection is being converted in-house. They are using Data Warehousing technology for reports; they have generated a call number index which will be in production next month. In addition, they have chosen an architect for a new off-site storage facility.
They are also taking aggressive control of archival material, using the Encoded Archival Description (EAD) for finding aids. They have established a partnership with IBM for imaging of the Beinecke [rare books] collections. In addition, the Art Library is starting with a project called "Imaging America" to make the University's visual resources more accessible through descriptive records and digitized image surrogates. The project is designed to complement LC's "American Memory" and the National Digital Library Federation's "Making of America" projects.
Before the Library of Congress' Beacher Wiggins could start his report he received congratulations from the Group on his appointment as Director for Cataloging at LC. On the core level record, he reported that the Management Team at LC had decided to adopt it as LC's cataloging standard. Catalogers will consider the appropriateness of core being adequate for the material they work on. He emphasized nevertheless that current cataloging levels, e.g., full, collection, and minimum levels, remain viable options, depending on the research value of the materials and on processing needs. Still to be decided is how LC will phase in the core level record implementation.
On the LC/Ameritech National Digital Library Competition Wiggins said that in November 1997 there is to be another round of selectees for the Digitization of Americana grants awarded by LC and the Ameritech Corporation.
On the integrated library system, he reported that LC has received 10 responses to its Request for Comments on an Integrated Library System. The Requests for Proposals (RFP) was ready in summer of 1997.
Cooperative Acquisitions Programs: Congress has given LC an extension until the end of the current fiscal year to continue its Cooperative Acquisitions Program and if creation of a revolving fund is not authorized by Congress, LC will have to cease the Program at the end of fiscal year 1997 and return any unexpended money to the participants.
MARC harmonization: Efforts to bring CANMARC and USMARC into
alignment are complete, as well as new updates of the USMARC Bibliographic and Authority formats with the changes, which are also complete. Similar updates for CANMARC are being planned. The British Library and the UKMARC community have content in their format that they feel they cannot give up now, so UKMARC will continue to be different in some respects. The national libraries are committed to continue work on harmonization of USMARC/CANMARC and UKMARC as new changes are proposed.
In addition, LC has begun intensive planning to move to Pinyin for romanization of Chinese scripts. Building on work done by the National Library of Australia, LC is working with representatives of the utilities and of CEAL (Council of East Asian Libraries) to develop plans for the transition. The intent is to do it in conjunction with implementation of the Integrated Library System in 1999. The switch to Pinyin is not expected before 2000.
As far as plans for the year 2000, LC plans to switch from a two-digit year prefix to a four-digit prefix. This change depends on getting the ILS in place and will not occur until after the year 2000.
On the cataloging electronic resources, LC is establishing guidelines which will soon be available for distribution. They are being developed by LC's Cataloging Policy and Support Office
with input from the public services areas that are doing the digitization of items as part of the National Digital Library Initiative.
The Jefferson Building has been renovated and reopened after a ten year closure. The re-opening was marked by a gala re-opening week, April 28-May 4, 1997.
Cornell's Christian Boissonnas reported the university is looking for a new Library Management System (LMS), with a decision to be made by the end of 1997 and implementation by summer 1999. They are building an off-campus storage facility to be opened in 1998 and have chosen a method, based on circulation, to choose materials that are candidates for transfer.
Cornell became a BIBCO library as of April 1, 1997. Early results suggest that doing full authority work may increase, not decrease, productivity. They are trying to tie collection development and cataloging with a cataloger becoming a part-time collection development staffer and a collection development staff member becoming a part-time cataloger. In Central Technical Services there are three staff members who are working on microcomputer and network technology. They are doing authority work through WAN; sending tapes once a week with a week turn-
around time. Catalogers create new authority headings but, in Central Technical Services, most of the authority control clean-up work is done post-cataloging by an authority control staff which has no professional catalogers.
Minnesota's Barbara Stelmasik reported that there has been in a team structure for a year. Cross-training is well underway though there are areas such as serials processing which will require more training and attention. All teams are looking at how to address a structural budget deficit; technical services' share is $49,000. Minnesota is investigating some vendor services that provide shelf-ready materials. They are also studying electronic resources: their selection, how the libraries provide access to them, etc. Technical services is working with archives and special collections on how to provide access to archival materials.
Funding has been provided by the State Legislature for MnLink, a new statewide library automation system and network for all academic, public, and K-12 libraries which wish to participate. The libraries are moving into a new PC environment along with a new sprinkler system and new carpeting, the installation of which will require all staff to move temporarily out of their usual work area. The are also in the process of implementing Windows 95. As a temporary solution to the need for microcomputer and other technical support each technical services team has a so-called Expert User who is to be called on for technical help. The University has a web environment and the Registrar's Office has developed a terrific student services set of web services which is integrated from the student's point of view rather than from the producer's; they are now expanding this to include many self - initiated library services such as renewals, reserves, etc.
At the University of Michigan Library, Beth Forrest Warner reported, they are in a transition administratively, with several interim appointments. Michigan has re-organized internally to create a new Division called Technical, Access, and System Services; it combines the traditional technical services (Cataloging, Serials, Acquisitions) with Preservation, ILL, and Systems. Catalogers are continuing to be involved in discussions of metadata, both conceptually and practically. One topic of discussion involves how metadata relates to MARC; MARC is increasingly perceived as too flatly structured to provide adequate description of digital objects. As a practical application of metadata, catalogers are working with ITD (the Information Technology Division) to design a campus-wide database of electronic resources. One view of the database is available
on the University's webpage: (http://www.umich.edu) as the Search option; a second view is available on the Library webpage (http://www.lib.umich.edu)
Michigan will move records for on-order materials into the online catalog starting this Fall. They have brought up a HTTP/Z39.50 gateway through a project with the CIC (the Committee for Interinstitutional Cooperation), of which Michigan is a member. The gateway provides a web interface to the local catalog and databases (NOTIS) as well as the catalogs of the other CIC member institutions. An additional aspect of the project is the capability for online, patron-initiated ILL/ document delivery requests. The potential impact on ILL will need to be monitored and evaluated carefully. The transition to new workstations in cataloging is complete. The latest area upgraded was copy cataloging which experienced a 9% productivity gain. Michigan is changing its serials vendor and is continuing its Digital Library projects.
Lee Leighton of Berkeley reported that they have been using OCLC's PromptCat for a year and a half. They have been a beta test site for a shelf-ready service from the Academic Book Center which has become a standard part of the PromptCat implementation. The University of California has brought up its staff version (Gladis, now called Pathfinder) of the UC catalog, on the web. Functional performance standards have been drawn up for Central Technical Services and for the branch libraries by a group composed of high level support staff. Berkeley has identified a need for advanced training for existing staff. They are experimenting with Marcadia (formerly Diogenes). Berkeley will be installing Windows 95 in December 1997. Lee asked for input on how to motivate staff for change.
The focus of Sally Sinn's report on the National Agricultural Library was the budget situation and the transition to electronic resources for the collection. NAL anticipates no budget increases for fiscal year 1998 which means that purchasing of library materials and funding for program priorities are again adversely affected by inflation and salary increases. To meet the shortfall for materials NAL will cancel $100,000 in serials subscriptions for 1998, including the only copy of titles in peripheral and related areas. NAL is a high volume document delivery source for USDA customers and the land-grant institutions, yet decisions on serial cancellations are proceeding without the aid of collection-usage data from on-site and document delivery requests. The Technical Services Division (TSD) is working with Public Services to collect and analyze data from document delivery requests to help guide collection development decisions.
NAL launched the Electronic Media Center (EMC) this year as a central component of its Electronic Information Initiative. OCLC's Site Search has been selected as the access interface for the electronic resources of the EMC. To help plan for the future and sustain production with fewer staff, the Technical Services Division undertook a processing management study to look at workflows, system support, personnel, and resources for acquisitions, serials control, cataloging and indexing. The study pointed out the desirability of integrating the functions of descriptive cataloging and indexing using the same bibliographic control system. TSD will investigate ways of implementing integration.
According to Sue Philips, the University of Texas system consortium, known as the University of Texas System Knowledge Management Center), will get money for managing remote services
and for preparing a plan for distance education throughout the University of Texas system. Still to be decided is what will be done centrally, and what off-site. TexShare (53 libraries in publicly supported institutions of higher education in the state of Texas) will be expanded to include community colleges and independent academic institutions; over 100 more. It will provide access to electronic databases and a statewide library card. TexShare will receive funding of $1 million a year for the next 2 years from legislative appropriations. UT was another library that got an Ameritech Digital Imaging award; they will digitize 82 photographs.
In addition, the Libraries have received a firm funding commitment to get an Integrated Library System; there is no mandate to get off the mainframe computer so they can take their time in choosing the new system. Statistics in April 1997--the peak month of spring--revealed some 2.5 million hits on the web, excluding opac searching, even though the roll-out of new public workstations was not complete. This showing made others on campus realize the important role the library plays in information technology. A survey of the student body of 48,000 students found that 80% have access to a computer in their place of residence. This finding has implications for the libraries and their computing planning. They have noticed a significant decrease in library photocopying services, probably because of access to fulltext databases. There are also slight downward trends in circulation and reference transactions, and in gateway counts. Public services need to be re-thought in terms of serving on-site users with services frequently associated only with distance education programs.
According to Duane Arenales, the National Library of Medicine is pursuing acquisition of an Integrated Library System (ILS) and working on data conversion; various planning teams are in place. Library Operations recently filled a 5 year temporary position for a special assistant for integrated library system implementation. The Office of Computer and Communications Systems has filled a similar position with an individual who will head-up the overall ILS project. NLM has developed guidelines for processing and providing access to electronic journals, and a team is working on implementation. In regard to the possible impact of less-than-full cataloging on access, Duane noted that NLM has a long-standing policy of paring down descriptive elements while providing expanded subject access to its limited-cataloging records, and this approach has been well received.
Since the Technical Services Division (TSD) moved to a Windows environment and the use of a mouse, staff incidence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and other physical problems appears to have increased. To alleviate this problem TSD requested and received a few thousand dollars for a consultant to spend time with each individual staff member to observe them using their microcomputer and to advise on changes that need to be made either in the way the staff member uses the equipment or in the workstation itself. For some time Library Operations at NLM has assigned Computer Support Coordinators (CSC) to provide technical support for microcomputer workstations. At present a survey is being conducted to identify possible tasks which could be handled instead on contract in order to free-up more staff time for ILS-related work. In addition to the CSCs, TSD has set up an SOS (Save our Staff) Group to improve staff microcomputer skills. The SOS has begun by conducting a staff survey to assess existing skills to see where more training is needed.
At Indiana University, Jean Poland reported similar findings. They need to upgrade their NOTIS system prior to the shift to Horizon next summer. Recon is being done in-house. They are trying to identify vendors and packages to support them in this task. They found they had 500,000 more records to be converted than they had thought. They upgraded all staff PCs to pentiums and see an increase of productivity. The Library is working with the University's financial officer to do a cost study of how much it costs to process a standard book. Less important than the actual costs are what they are learning about themselves, e.g., that they lack data on such questions as what proportion of the equipment budget goes to technical services
Harvard's Jane Ouderkirk is delaying choice of an Integrated Library System. Four vendors will be asked to each spend a month on campus. They are working to determine the level of staff needed by type of material and by type of cataloging. Many Harvard libraries are loaning materials to each other for the first time.
At the University of Washington Geri Bunker reported similar activities. The state of Washington is interested in providing more access to more materials by more people during more hours of day. The Digital Library for them primarily means access, not preservation. The higher education sites are pretty well fully networked. The Library has moved from Unix to Windows NT. They have a Local Experts Group (about 50 people). In the last year there was a 12-16% decrease in locally-mounted BRS databases and the opac for which they use a locally-developed system (Willow) as interface; the new generation wants a graphical user interface and full text. The library is continually re-examining reorganization; the technical services staff had a retreat to talk about change and self-management. They are still traditionally organized but they do have some teams.
After the round robin ended, John Lubans and others reported on the impact of networking on library organizations. He had done a brief survey at Duke to find out if e-mail had changed practices of communication in technical services. He distributed the results of the survey.
Under "New Business", John Lubans asked members of the audience to comment on the Big Heads discussions.
John Attig, of Penn State said that a better method of doing the round robin report is needed, with more focus on discussion.
Ann Sitkin of the Harvard Law Library mentioned it would help if reports were distributed on paper prior to meeting; so the meeting could be spent discussing them. Judy Nadler of the University of Chicago asked what the audience hopes to get out of these meetings. Marianne Vankura of the Cooley Law Library suggested to do an environmental scanning to identify commonalities; to get a sense of perspective on issues that also affect her library. Gillian McComb of SUNY at Albany agreed and she also said that it is important to circulate summaries of the discussion, either in e-mail or paper form. The representative of the University of Manitoba) noted that practically everything discussed here happens to libraries in Canada just as they do in U.S. libraries. The Big Heads need to create a way of having a dialogue in the audience's hearing. Dilys Morris of Iowa State University stated that discussions are helpful but an environment scanning would also help identify the new issues for someone to pull together prior to meeting. Jane Ouderkirk (Harvard) said that statistics such as those that Mike Bruer and Sue Phillips gave, are good jumping-off points for further discussion.
State University of New York at Buffalo
Clifford Lynch's comments at the ALCTS Pre-Conference on the Changing Business of Acquisitions, June 1997.
Inasmuch as processes, actions and decisions made in the acquisitions section of any technical services department affect, and to a degree determine, processes, actions and decisions made in the cataloging section of the same department, Lynch's comments made during this pre-conference are also appropriate and will resonate with cataloging librarians who must deal with similar issues. In their wider scope these remarks are of course of interest to most library departments, with special relevance to Reference, and Circulation. When weighing subscriptions to databases or e-journals, Lynch's cautions and questions prod us to approach the subject carefully.
Clifford Lynch is eminently qualified to speak about electronic resources and their impact on libraries. He was for years Director of Library Automation at the University of California and has now become Director of the Coalition for Networked Information. Listening to him speak one gets the impression of someone who looks into the future while carefully considering the implications of change.
He began by pointing out the obvious, i.e., the necessity of handling the acquisition of electronic resources very differently from purchasing monographs or serials. Monographs incur a one-time commitment of money, and although serials represent a continuing commitment, the purchasing of electronic resources incurs not only an ongoing commitment of funds, but also an ongoing evaluation of the service which delivers the product, and the of the product itself. Therefore, before making the decision to subscribe to an electronically delivered resource, the implication of continuous monitoring of a variety of points needs to be looked at and taken into account.
Continuous, or at least frequent, checking of the following points becomes a necessity:
1. Quality of transmission, i.e.,
- how one is connected to the Internet;
- how the supplier is connected to the Internet and to the transmitter;
- does the supplier have to go through an intermediary, such as Sprint, which is not necessarily connected to ANS;
- is transmission of high quality at all times when access is needed (consider time zones!);
- what about scientific journals that need much more powerful transmitters, more broadband widths;
- are resources unavailable, though paid for, during times of service to transmitters, and how and when are transmitters serviced and subscribers informed;
- AV materials which lend themselves very well to online transmission will need enormous power and require large investments in infrastructure?
2. Quality of resource, i.e.,
- are links made primarily to journals from the same
- are web-pages redesigned often and are links changed frequently;
- are web-pages designed efficiently, eliminating the need to dig through layers of information to access material;
- who evaluates contents and makes final decision on quality and subscription;
- will acquisition of electronic resources become separate from print acquisition and will it be done by the coordinator, who must also monitor appropriations, expenses, license matters, etc.;
- is funding available for equipment upgrades needed by future additions of new components and increasingly complex materials?
3. Content and frequency of resource, i.e.,
- networks change, merge, are bought and sold and thus agreements change in the process;
- did the licensing company act as aggregator and are some of its contracts expiring with the licensors;
- journals, especially original publications, sometimes simply vanish because of agreements made during buy-outs and other organizational change;
- how can access remain assured and is downloading a violation of copyright;
- if contents of the resource is about to change, notification of the customer is of utmost importance;
- what type of notification does the supplier provide and how much lead-time is provided before changes take place;
- in case there is a change in content, does the price change;
- how does one handle check-in and claiming without the physical object;
- when dealing with databases, how does one know they actually contains all materials they claim to include;
- how are claims handled and cancellations;
- who is responsible for monitoring these;
- free materials are not part of the electronic environment, so how does one handle CDs, disks, etc. that are part of the package?
4. Use of the electronic resource, i.e.,
- to whom and how is access provided;
- what about the privacy issue (users will need to register private information with the library);
- how is use and usefulness measured;
- what type of statistics does the supplier provide;
- how easy is it to get statistics from the supplier, and how can their accuracy be assured;
- can printouts of materials be made;
- what about copyright infringements, especially when graphics are used and printed out, or when complete books are supplied electronically?
Since Lynch did not supply any answers to these many questions, the task of selecting and acquiring these materials becomes daunting. In addition, what about the cataloging of these resources? As was the case with AV materials years ago, will catalogers develop who specialize in providing access to electronic resources? Will it fall to them to monitor URLs, monitor the contents of what they are cataloging? Will it be cost effective to keep track of all changes?
Lynch did not imply that there are no solutions for the possible problems he raised. His aim was, rather, to provide points of departure in the process of assessing the usefulness of e-resources and of assuring value and quality for the dollars committed. The general tone of his presentation could be summed up with his very apt expression of "approaching the subject with aggressive skepticism."
In the end it is up to the libraries to work with providers of e-resources to construct a product that will meet the needs of their users, and by being vigilant assure that the product remains a good value for the price.
Margit J. Smith
University of San Diego
The following summary was submitted from the International Conference on the Principles and Future Development of AACR, held October 23-25, 1997, in Toronto, Canada.
AACR International Conference Actions:
A number of actions and recommendations resulted from the above Conference and the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR is now charged with the establishment of an action plan to be implemented in conjunction with the Committee of Principals for AACR. Immediately following the Conference, therefore, at its annual meeting, the Joint Steering Committee discussed the results of the Conference. The action items listed below have been identified for immediate implementation and a more complete summary of the Conference results will follow. In addition, the Conference proceedings will be published by the American Library Association, the Canadian Library Association and the Library Association under the editorship of Jean Weihs.
The following action items have been developed by JSC from the priorities identified during the Conference.
Items for immediate action by JSC:
- Pursue the recommendation that a data modeling technique by used to provide a logical analysis of the principles and structures that underlie AACR;
- Create a list of the principles of AACR2;
- Formalize the recommendations on seriality endorsed during the Conference and introduce them into the rule revision process;
- Solicit a proposal to revise rule 0.24 to advance the discussion on the primacy of intellectual content over physical format;
- Maintain and AACR Web site;
- Publicize and reaffirm, on the AACR Web site, JSC policies, procedures and activities, as well as the current processes for submitting rule revision proposals emanating from within or outside AACR author countries;
- Develop a mission statement for JSC;
- Determine if there are any existing surveys on the extent of use of AACR2 outside the Anglo-American community and if no such survey exists, conduct such a survey;
This list will be available at the http://www.nlc-bnc/jsc/index/htm -- Joint Steering Committee for the Revision of AACR.
Barbara B. Tillett
Library of Congress
A detailed description of the 3rd edition (8/97) of:
A classification system for libraries of Judaica,
including discussions by librarians who have used previous editions, is available on the Elazar home page, at the following URL: http://www.geocities.com/d_elazar/class.html
University of Michigan